Are you looking to start a professional corporation in Maine, but you’re not sure where to start?
Professional corporations are those owned and operated by licensed professionals, like doctors, lawyers, and architects. There are quite a few important steps you’ll need to take to create your Maine professional corporation and maintain it, so this guide will outline the rules and regulations involved with this process.
We’ll cover everything you need to know, from picking names, choosing a board, navigating taxes, and more. To get started, please reference our guide below or hire a professional online incorporation service.
What is a Maine Professional Corporation?
On the surface, a professional corporation and a regular corporation look very similar. Both businesses can issue stock, both have bylaws, and both are governed by a board of directors and an executive team. Both pay corporate income taxes, too.
And more importantly, both corporation types offer personal asset protection. Simply put, a shareholder or member of the business isn’t liable for the business’s debts. So a member of the corporation can’t be sued; the corporation is sued. However, in a professional corporation, there’s one exception: individual members can be sued for malpractice.
That’s especially important because professional corporations usually offer professional services, such as lawyers, dentists, doctors, chiropractors, and more. All of those trades can be sued for malpractice. But in a PC, only the person responsible for the malpractice can be sued. That makes it a better option for most professionals.
In Maine, a corporation may form as a professional service corporation if the corporation’s shares are only owned by licensed professionals (with a few limited exceptions). This reduces a PC’s ability to fundraise somewhat, but the advantage of liability protection remains.
7 Steps to Start a Professional Corporation in Maine
Now let’s jump into the specific steps you’ll need to take to form a professional corporation in Maine. Later on in this guide, we’ll discuss the steps you need to take in order to maintain your corporation in Maine. But let’s start at the beginning.
1. Select Your Board of Directors
A professional corporation is only as good as its board of directors, so you’ll want to appoint carefully. And while the bulk of people involved in the day-to-day operations of your business will be licensed in your profession, we recommend having your board be a bit more diverse.
For example, a dental PC might want a director with legal experience, one with business growth expertise, a financial expert, and so on. This gives you diverse input to help the business succeed.
Maine makes it relatively simple to choose your board because the state’s guidelines are pretty clear. First, you must have at least three directors for your board. Next, a majority of your directors must be licensed in the PC’s profession (the clerk, secretary, and treasurer positions are the only exception to this rule). As long as you meet those requirements, you can set out all the remaining rules for your board of directors in your company bylaws. For a full look at the state’s rules for a board of directors, please consult the Maine Professional Service Corporation Act.
2. Designate a Registered Agent
Every Maine professional corporation—and even other entity types—must appoint a registered agent. This individual accepts “service of process” from the state on your behalf. Basically, if the state ever needs to notify you regarding a lawsuit or an upcoming annual report due date, they’ll contact your registered agent. Your agent forwards that notice to you.
Maine has a few legal requirements for your registered agent, though:
- Every entity that files with the Secretary of State (both domestic and foreign) must appoint a commercial registered agent (serving as an agent as a business) or a noncommercial registered agent (privately appointed by the entity)
- The agent may be a resident of Maine OR a business with authority to operate within the state
- An agent must be continuously maintained
You can find a full rundown of the state laws in the Model Registered Agents Act.
Technically, you can serve as your own registered agent, but we don’t recommend it. First, you’ll be busy running the day-to-day affairs of your corporation. It’s also important to note that the registered agent’s address goes on the public record; some entrepreneurs are uncomfortable with that idea. Because of that, it’s a good idea to appoint a third party, such as an individual that you trust or one of our top registered agent services.
3. Choose a Name for Your Corporation
Technically, you can complete this step at any point during the process, but we’ve put it here—depending on how involved your board of directors or fellow incorporators are, they may want to be involved in the naming process.
Choosing a name can be one of the most fun—and challenging—parts of starting a PC. There are a few things to keep in mind when picking a name.
Meet Maine’s Legal Requirements
The trickiest part of naming a business is adhering to the state’s legal requirements for naming a business. Thankfully, Maine keeps its laws relatively simple:
- Your name must include one of the following phrases: “professional service corporation,” “service corporation,” “professional corporation,” or “chartered” (abbreviations of these is also permitted)
- Your name must comply with any rules required by the governing board of your industry
- Your name cannot state or imply that your business is conducting activities that go against state law or the purpose stated in your Articles of Incorporation
Pick a Descriptive Name That You Like
As long as you meet legal requirements, you have a lot of leeway to pick the perfect name for your professional corporation. In general, you should choose a name that’s memorable, describes what your business does, and is easy to say and remember. More importantly, you should pick a name that you and your team likes. You should feel good when you tell other people about your business, and your name is a big part of that.
You can also reserve your name with the Application for Reservation of Name form. This procedure costs $20 to submit, but it protects your name for 120 days. That buys you time for other business start-up steps. After all the work to create a name, you don’t want to lose it to another business.
4. File your Articles of Incorporation
Now that you have your board, agent, and name all lined up, you’re all set to file your Articles of Incorporation. This two-page document (plus a cover letter with contact information) is what officially forms your business in Maine, and it requires some foundational data about your business. This is the information you’ll need to provide:
- The name of your corporation
- Which professional service(s) you’ll offer
- Name and address of your commercial or noncommercial registered agent (called a clerk within the form)
- How many shares you’ll issue, and if applicable, their different classes and values
- How your corporation will be managed (board or by shareholders)
- The minimum and maximum number of board members you’ll have
- Whether your corporation will have preemptive rights as listed in state law
- Any additional provisions you wish to include
- Name and address of each incorporator
- Signature of incorporator
All told, this document is pretty simple to complete; all you have to do is fill in the requested information, and you’ll be set to go. Maine does not offer online filing for this form, so you’ll need to have $145 in check or money order on hand to pay the filing fee.
5. Establish Your Corporate Record & Hold Your First Board Meeting
Now that your professional corporation officially exists, it’s time to establish your corporate record. Your board of directors will help you do this during your first board meeting.
The very first step you’ll take is drafting your bylaws. Maine doesn’t dictate a lot of legal requirements for the day-to-day operations of your business, so that’s where your bylaws will come in. Your bylaws are basically the operating manual for your business: how the board is appointed and maintained, shareholder policies and distributions, how officers are appointed, and much more. Every PC will have slightly different bylaws, but it’s essential to have them.
In addition to creating bylaws, at your first meeting, you’ll want to appoint someone to take minutes at each meeting. These minutes form another vital part of your corporate record, summarizing all important activities and decisions.
Other important tasks for your first meeting include appointing officers, drafting a conflict of interest policy, establishing committees (if applicable), and more. No two board meetings are exactly alike, but the first one is a crucial (and busy) one.
6. Obtain Business Licenses
As a professional corporation, you won’t be a stranger to the licenses required by your industry. But we’d be remiss not to remind you of them!
In Maine, almost all of your shareholders and directors must have licenses in the PC’s profession. Your employees are also required to have a license if they offer the PC’s service; support staff like clerks and receptionists don’t need licenses. If any members of your organization need to renew or obtain a license, then the Business Answers tool is a great place to get started.
A lot of Maine’s cities and counties also require a general business license; there isn’t an all-encompassing statewide license. To be sure you’ve covered all of your bases, please check in with your local government to learn if there are any licenses required in your area. Another helpful resource is our guide to ME business licenses.
7. Set up a Business Bank Account
If you don’t already have one, it’s time to get a business bank account. This enables you to ensure that your business funds and personal funds are always separate—an essential distinction to maintain your personal asset protection. Most banks will ask to see your bylaws (and maybe even your formation documents) as part of this process.
You can also look into getting a business credit card if you feel your company is ready for that step.
3 Steps to Maintain Your Maine Professional Corporation
Now that your business is up and running, it’s time to maintain it compliantly. There are three major areas you’ll want to tackle (or plan ahead for): taxes, insurance, and annual reporting.
1. Prepare for Taxes
Taxes are a fact of life for a corporation. Before you do anything else, we recommend obtaining an EIN, or an Employer Identification Number—even if you don’t have employees. That’s because an EIN acts like a social security number for a business. What’s more, it’s free (and quick) to obtain through the IRS.
After that, if you have employees, you’ll want to anticipate your contributions to unemployment insurance taxes and withholding taxes on the state and federal levels.
And of course, there are corporate income taxes to account for (21% for federal taxes and 3.5-8.93% for state ones). These taxes are arguably the biggest expense a corporation will face in a given year. Income taxes are supplemented by Maine’s miscellaneous industry taxes: blueberries and milk handling are just a few of them. You can find more information on miscellaneous taxes with Maine Revenue Services.
To keep things organized and simple for all things tax, we recommend setting up an accounting software and working with a qualified professional.
2. Obtain Business Insurance
In addition to the malpractice insurance that each practitioner maintains, we highly recommend maintaining a general liability insurance policy for the business as a whole.
Lots of things can go wrong: fallen trees at your physical location, a fall on your property, malfunctioning equipment…it’s a long list. This general policy isn’t required by Maine law, but we recommend it so you’re protected no matter what. Accidents and natural disasters can be very expensive.
Maine does require one insurance policy, though: workers’ compensation. Any Maine business with employees must maintain one of these policies. For more information on this requirement, please consult the Maine Workers’ Compensation Board.
3. Anticipate Your Annual Report
All businesses in Maine are required to submit an annual filing called the annual report. This report updates the state regarding any information about your business that might have changed over the course of the year. It’s a very simple online filing.
The due date is no later than June 1st, and the filing fee is $85. This form might not seem like much, but don’t overlook it; delinquent filings can cause a lot of hassle. If you’d prefer to have a service handle this obligation for you, there are a handful of reliable report filing services.
Getting Help With Your Maine Professional Corporation
Feeling overwhelmed or just need an extra hand? Here are some of our favorite resources for Maine professional corporations.
Online Incorporation Services
If you would like to hire an affordable business incorporation service to create your professional corporation for you, services like LegalZoom, Rocket Lawyer and Swyft Filings can help you out. These service providers can handle most of the formation process, while still charging much lower rates than a business attorney’s fees.
There isn’t the same level of personalization that a lawyer can provide, but online incorporation services can still be a tremendous help. The only major issue with these service providers is the fact that they can’t provide any actual legal advice, so you need to know what you want ahead of time.
Maine Business Attorneys
There are some situations where hiring a business lawyer is a preferable route to using an online incorporation service. The professional corporation as a business structure can be highly complicated and specialized, and if you want to have the peace of mind that every single step was taken care of by a true expert, hiring a business attorney to form your Maine professional corporation is the way to go.
If you would like to pursue this route, there are some convenient services that can help you choose the right lawyer for your business. We like to use Avvo, which has extensive reviews and ratings for hundreds of Maine business lawyers, which can make it much easier to select an attorney who has your best interests in mind and also has the expertise to get the job done right.
Frequently Asked Questions
Can I speed up the process?
Since Maine only accepts paper filings for business formation documents, your processing speeds are a touch slow. Most documents are processed within 9-15 business days. If you need quicker turnaround, $50 will get you 24-hour processing; $100 guarantees your documents are processed on the same day (upon receipt).
Can a Maine professional corporation elect S-corporation status?
In most states, there’s a big advantage to electing S-corporation status, which allows a corporation to be taxed more like a pass-through entity. Since individual income taxes are often lighter than corporate ones, this election can reduce your tax burden. To qualify for this status, a corporation must have 100 or fewer shareholders and only one class of stock.
Maine PCs can apply for this status with the IRS using Form 2553. Since the personal income tax is usually smaller than the corporate one, this election can be a significant advantage. That said, depending on your personal income levels, the tax burden can be higher. We recommend consulting with a tax professional to discuss which choice is right for you.
Do I have to file my corporate record with the state?
Maine does not require you to file your corporate record with the Secretary of State; you’re simply required to keep one. Most professional corporations choose to keep a classic binder with these records, but you can pick the method that works for you. Just ensure that it’s accessible somewhere onsite, and you’ll be able to add to it or consult to it as needed.
What’s the difference between a PLLC and a PC? Can I form one in Maine?
A PLLC, or Professional Limited Liability Company, is an LLC formed by professionals in regulated industries. Some states, Maine included, offer it as an alternative to the PC because LLCs are a little easier to run (and have tax advantages over corporations). Maine lets you choose which option works best for you.
Are incorporation services like ZenBusiness and Northwest worth it?
That depends on what your needs are. If you want to keep your expenses as low as possible, then you might find yourself bewildered by the state fee and the service’s package fees put together. But if you don’t want to endure the hassle of dealing with paperwork, or you simply want a teammate to help you through the process, a service may be a big help to you.
Another important note is that neither ZenBusiness or Northwest file professional corporations. Yes, they are ideal if you’re looking to form a regular corporation or an LLC, but not professional corporations.
Should I hire a business attorney to help with my PC?
Ideally, yes (if you can afford it). But a business-lawyer relationship is a very important one, and you’ll want to find a lawyer that fits your budget, your personality, your industry, and so on. One of our favorite tools for Maine businesses is Avvo.com, where you can find lawyers in your city, based on the best customer reviews, and several other helpful filters. It’s a helpful tool.